Mayors or Managers

Whether a municipality is a city or a town, the major leadership role to promote regionalizing municipal activities comes from its mayor or manager, who is its chief executive officer (CEO). The mayor or manager must look for natural partners and form coalitions of communities for potential collaboration.

Once a coalition is formed, in the first coalition meeting the CEO should start the process of identifying projects that the communities collectively think have regionalization potential. They should reach out to their regional planning agency to partner with them to conduct feasibility studies and evaluate the potential for success. Mayors and managers are the perfect individuals to consider the politics associated with a proposed project and to identify potential sources of funding or resources to advance projects. The mayor or manager must ultimately be a project champion.

The CEOs should engage municipal solicitors early on in the process. A legal agreement is needed to formalize the collaboration and can be developed once the project has been identified and vetted. An administrative structure will need to be negotiated by the CEOs and responsibilities of management and budgeting need to be part of any agreement. The administrative entity should establish an evaluation method to assess the effectiveness of the collaboration to measure success.

Look for Natural Partnerships

Municipal leaders should look for and take advantage of natural partnerships to help increase the likelihood of successful projects. It may be easier for communities with a history of collaboration to expand their partnerships to shared services projects. Even municipalities without existing relationship but with similar demographics could be natural partners.

Examples of natural partnerships include being part of a regional school district or members of the same regional planning agency. Geographic closeness can also lead to natural partnerships; for example, towns on a hill, along a shared river, or on Cape Cod may find it easy to work with neighbors.

Municipal leaders should keep in mind that working with seemingly natural partners does not automatically guarantee success, as there may still be barriers to overcome when sharing goods and services.

Identify Projects

Local leaders are often under pressure from various stakeholders – municipal employees, residents, and state government – to quickly produce effective solutions to local problems.

Those leaders who are seeking innovative regional solutions to such problems may find themselves under increased pressure to ensure that any solution involving shared services is particularly effective and, more important, favorable to the residents of the municipality. Given Massachusetts’ long tradition of home rule and local control, such leaders often cannot find examples of successful regional solutions and may find themselves creating projects for the first time. Such projects are often under increased scrutiny and serve as “test cases” for future shared services endeavors.

Thus, a critical piece to successfully sharing services is to find and implement the right project at the right time. Many times community leaders come together under a banner of a regional coalition of communities. Coalitions create a forum where ideas can be discussed and debated; they also create a natural buy-in process as recommendations come from the communities themselves.

Use Existing Regional Plans to Identify Projects

Existing regional plans are a good source of potential projects and, in many cases, the need for a specific project has already been established as part of the regional planning process. Moreover, multiple stakeholders contribute to the creation of a regional plan, and a regionalization project that is recommended in such a plan can gain significant support by its recommendation in a regional plan. In addition, an initial study may have already been done as part of the regional plan, therefore proving that the project could work, although a feasibility study may still be necessary.

Massachusetts’ 13 regional planning agencies are excellent sources of existing regional plans and include plans related to priority development, open space and recreation, transportation, scenic byways and comprehensive economic development.

Regionalize New Programs as They Emerge

Whether change occurs through the passage of new state and federal laws, availability of new funding sources, or advances in technology, it can lead to the creation of new municipal services and programs. There is an opportunity as new programs emerge to structure such programs in a way that encourages or even requires some form of regionalization.

Without a preexisting organizational structure, it can be easier to develop an entirely new program from scratch than it is to consolidate existing programs. Local leaders can avoid collective bargaining issues and other personnel concerns, reduce the potential for staff layoffs and even change the working culture of a municipal government by regionalizing emerging services.

On the other hand, regionalizing emerging municipal programs may still involve dealing with personnel issues if current employees are being re-assigned to a new program. In addition, municipal officials may have face some resistance if a new program challenges the way things are usually done in a municipality.

Take Advantage of Expiring Service Contracts and Staff Attrition

One of the most important factors in successfully implementing a shared service project is timing. Regionalizing municipal services often requires restructuring staff assignments, which most local leaders either do not want to do or cannot to do because of existing employment contracts and relevant Massachusetts law.

Uspcoming staff retirements and expiring contracts present a good opportunity to move an existing service in a regional direction. As employees leave through resignation or retirement, opportunities arise for sharing rather than filling the open position. Waiting until employees retire or leave positions may help reduce a community’s resistance to shared service projects and decrease the likelihood that local officials will need to reduce the workforce through unpopular layoffs. Municipal leaders should remain in regular contact with neighboring communities and share information regarding staffing in order to be prepared when opportunities arise.

Furthermore, municipalities may achieve significant savings though joint procurements with neighboring municipalities. Such projects often require realigning existing service contracts and neighboring municipalities usually operate under service contracts that expire at different times. Local officials should reach out to neighboring communities a few months before existing contracts are set to expire and consider working together on a joint procurement or shared service project. The increased negotiating power gained by working together may result in significant cost savings. Finding the right partner may take some time, so municipal officials should remain in regular contact with neighboring communities and work to realign contracts whenever possible.

Use Your Regional Planning Agency Resources

The Commonwealth’s 13 thirteen regional planning agencies are an invaluable resource of information, often acting as providers of technical assistance and host agencies for member municipalities. As the creators of the website, the RPA staff is well-suited with both the substantive knowledge regarding individual municipal services as well as information related to regional collaboration and shared service projects. Regional planning agency staff includes experts in a broad range of municipal services, including transportation, public health, energy, procurement, public safety, land use, housing, environmental affairs, public works and emergency preparedness.

Know the Politics

Be ready to address “turf” issues by being aware of the history and politics of the communities involved in a shared service project. Intergovernmental cooperation by its very nature involves municipalities having to give up some degree of control and responsibility. Consider which communities may “win or lose” if a particular regionalization effort is implemented. Learn the history of particular communities and research any past regionalization efforts. Speak to local official and department staff about their experiences in shared services projects. Keep up with local politics and municipal events. The effects of these dynamics on interlocal cooperation in Massachusetts cannot be overstated. More importantly, address these issues openly and early so that they do not undermine the program as it is being planned and implemented.

Identify Potential Sources of Funding

Cities and towns should seek opportunities to leverage existing resources with other sources of revenue. There is an increased interest by foundations, state governments, and the federal government in supporting projects that will reduce local costs and increase efficiencies. Locating potential funding sources can help move the regionalization discussion from concept to reality. Municipal officials should contact their regional planning agencies to learn more about financial resources such as District Local Technical Assistance (DLTA) funding, the Community Innovative Challenge grant program and State 911 Department funding.

Municipal officials should keep in mind that grant funding is limited and may help get a project off the ground but usually cannot sustain a project long term. Such leaders should consider other innovative ways to maintain the project, including user fees and utilizing any realized savings to fund the project.

Identify and Cultivate Project Champions

Strong leadership is vital to the successful implementation of a project. A project with support from influential local stakeholders will likely be easier to implement and more successful overall. Thus, it is important to find local allies and project champions who can help facilitate the process and lead the charge to overcome any barriers. While such a champion may be a mayor, town manager, or a department head, any community resident or staff member with energy, influence and confidence in the project can be a local champion. Often, those people who are not “in power” can help drive a project to success and bring an entire community or department on board.

It can be challenging to finding and cultivate a spokesperson who is knowledgeable, generates respect and is skilled at building consensus for the project.

Determine Type of Agreement Needed and Which Laws and Regulations to Follow

Determining the most appropriate type of legal agreement to use depends on a number of factors, but starts with knowledge of the applicable M.G.L.

Seek the advice of legal counsel early on, before deciding which type of legal agreement would best suit a particular regionalization project. The Massachusetts General Laws may directly govern the provision of the service to be shared, and there also may be laws that govern regionalizing the service. The Massachusetts Department of Revenue produced a List of Statutes Providing for Regionalization that can be found online at:

Other service provision factors will help guide the decision as to which type of agreement to use. Addressing questions about funding sources, governance structure and staffing (including benefits and retirement considerations) are important to determine if a simple inter-municipal agreement (formal contract, joint service agreement, or service exchange agreement) is warranted, or if a different process, such as a town meeting vote or passage of special legislation is required to implement the shared service.

  • Early legal research saves time and effort later in the process
  • Knowing the applicable M.G.L.s provides the foundation on which to build the shared service arrangement
  • Abiding by the M.G.L.s reduces potential liability for the service

Appoint a Joint Administrative Board

It is a best practice to create an administrative board with representation from each participating municipality that will help oversee implementation and governance of a new shared services program. A joint administrative board allows each participating community to have a voice in any decision making process and helps ensure participants remains committed to the project. The board can determine on-going program needs, advise municipalities on budget needs, and provide a means of communication between partner municipalities.

Establish an evaluation method to assess implementation process

It is a best practice to create an evaluation method to assess a new program’s effectiveness. A good evaluation process will help determine the program’s impact and identify overall strengths and weaknesses to improve the program.  It will also verify that the program is currently running as planned, provide evidence of effectiveness and what needs further work, and provide data to help replicate the program.

One challenge to creating an evaluation method is finding the resources to pay for expertise to conduct a meaningful evaluation. In addition, it may take several years for the programs to produce measurable data.